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CASE REPORT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 66-72

The portrayal of microbes in respiratory medicine


1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Pulmonology, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Department of Pharmacology, American University School of Medicine Aruba, Aruba, Central America
6 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, American University School of Medicine Aruba, Aruba, Central America
7 Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, American University School of Medicine Aruba, Aruba, Central America
8 Department of Emergency Medicine, NIMS, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
9 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
10 Professor and Dean, Department of Basic Science, American University School of Medicine Aruba, Aruba, Central America

Correspondence Address:
Prof. M V Raghavendra Rao
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJ.MJ_24_20

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Respiratory diseases caused by a number of infectious agents including Streptococcal pneumonia, streptococcal pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia H. influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Coxiella Bunetii, chlamydia pisittaci. These microbes enter into the lungs and cause primary cases of pneumonia. The whole respiratory epithelium down to the internal bronchioles is ciliated. The cilia and the thin film of mucus covering them have the critical function of trapping foreign particles, including bacteria, and propelling them toward the pharynx. They contribute to the prevention of respiratory infection as they do the macrophages utilizing their secretory, phagocytic, and bactericidal activity. Despite the wonderful defense, the bacterium escapes and settles in the lungs to produce diseases. Pneumonia is the term used to describe inflammation of the lung. Pneumococcal pneumonia is characterized by homologous consolidation of one or more lobes or segments. Pneumococcal pneumonia occurs at all ages but most frequently in early and middle adult life. Pneumonia is characterized with the rise in body temperature 39-40oC, remain associated with painful cough initially dry, but later patient develops production of tenacious sputum, which is often rusty and occasionally bloodstained. Staphylococcal pneumonia is caused due to Streptococcus aureus, which may occur either as a primary respiratory infection or as a blood-borne infection from a staphylococcal lesion elsewhere in the body. Klebsiella pneumonia is caused due to K. pneumoniae, a rare disease with high mortality. There is usually massive consolidation and excavation of one or more lobes, with the upper lobes being most often involved and with large amounts of purulent sputum, sometimes characteristic red currant jelly sputum. Legionella pneumonia is caused by Gram-negative bacillus L. pneumophila, which is usually transmitted in water droplets from infected cisterns used to provide water for showers, particularly in warm climates. It is often a serious and occasionally a fatal illness. C. psittaci causes psittacosis (ornithosis), a systemic illness contracted from infected birds. Pneumonia associated with it may be extensive, with severe toxemia. M. pneumoniae is a pleomorphic bacterium; symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia are mild compared to other cases of pneumonia (walking pneumonia). On the other hand, liver function test derangements and dyselectrolytemia are more common. It is susceptible to tetracyclines though a few strains are sensitive only to erythromycin.


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